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Pregnancy Week 21

Pregnancy Week 21: A Comprehensive Guide


Pregnancy week 21 marks the beginning of the second trimester, a time of significant growth and development for both the mother and the baby. This week, the baby’s body begins to take shape, and the mother may experience a range of physical and emotional changes. Understanding the milestones and potential challenges of pregnancy week 21 can help expectant mothers navigate this transformative time with confidence and well-being.

Fetal Development

  • Size and Weight: At week 21, the baby is approximately 10.5 inches long (from crown to rump) and weighs around 13 ounces.
  • Body Development: The baby’s body continues to grow and mature. The head is still large in proportion to the body, but the limbs are becoming more defined. Fingers and toes are fully formed, and the baby may start to suck on its thumb.
  • Facial Features: The baby’s facial features become more distinct. The eyes are open and can move, and the eyebrows and eyelashes are visible. The nose and lips are also more prominent.
  • Organ Development: The baby’s organs continue to develop rapidly. The heart is fully formed and pumping blood throughout the body. The kidneys are functioning, and the baby is producing urine. The lungs are still immature but are beginning to produce surfactant, a substance that will help them expand after birth.
  • Movement: The baby’s movements become more frequent and stronger. The mother may feel the baby kicking, punching, or rolling.

Maternal Changes

  • Uterus: The uterus continues to grow, pushing the abdomen forward. The mother may experience an increase in back pain and difficulty sleeping.
  • Weight Gain: The mother may gain around 1-2 pounds per week during the second trimester.
  • Breasts: The breasts continue to enlarge and prepare for breastfeeding. The nipples may become darker and more sensitive.
  • Skin: The mother may develop stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs, and breasts. These marks are usually permanent but can fade over time.
  • Mood Swings: The mother may experience mood swings due to hormonal changes. She may feel happy and excited one moment and tearful or irritable the next.
  • Fatigue: The mother may feel tired and exhausted, especially in the evenings.
  • Nausea and Vomiting: Nausea and vomiting may subside during the second trimester, but some women may still experience these symptoms.
  • Heartburn: Heartburn is a common symptom of pregnancy, caused by the relaxation of the esophageal sphincter.
  • Constipation: Constipation is another common pregnancy symptom, due to the increased levels of progesterone.

Medical Care

  • Prenatal Appointments: The mother should continue to attend regular prenatal appointments with her healthcare provider. These appointments include checkups, ultrasounds, and blood tests to monitor the health of the mother and the baby.
  • Ultrasound: An ultrasound may be performed during week 21 to assess the baby’s growth and development. The ultrasound can also check for any potential abnormalities.
  • Blood Tests: Blood tests may be performed to check for anemia, gestational diabetes, and other potential complications.

Lifestyle Considerations

  • Diet: The mother should eat a healthy diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein. She should also limit her intake of caffeine and alcohol.
  • Exercise: The mother should continue to exercise regularly, as long as her healthcare provider approves. Exercise can help reduce back pain, improve mood, and prepare the body for labor.
  • Sleep: The mother should get plenty of rest. She may find it helpful to take naps during the day or elevate her feet when lying down.
  • Stress Management: Stress can be harmful to the mother and the baby. The mother should find healthy ways to manage stress, such as yoga, meditation, or spending time in nature.

Emotional Health

Pregnancy week 21 can be an emotionally challenging time for some mothers. The physical changes and hormonal fluctuations can lead to feelings of anxiety, depression, or mood swings. It is important for the mother to talk to her healthcare provider or a mental health professional if she is experiencing any emotional difficulties.


Pregnancy week 21 is a time of significant growth and development for both the mother and the baby. Understanding the milestones and potential challenges of this week can help expectant mothers navigate this transformative time with confidence and well-being. By following a healthy lifestyle, attending regular prenatal appointments, and seeking support when needed, mothers can ensure the optimal health and well-being of their growing babies.

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