Download Tanpa MENUNGGU

Tubular Pregnancy

Tubal Pregnancy: A Comprehensive Overview


A tubal pregnancy, also known as an ectopic pregnancy, occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, typically within the fallopian tube. This condition is a medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent life-threatening complications.


Tubal pregnancies account for approximately 2% of all pregnancies and are the leading cause of pregnancy-related deaths in the first trimester. The incidence has been increasing in recent decades, likely due to factors such as rising rates of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

Risk Factors

Several factors increase the risk of developing a tubal pregnancy, including:

  • Previous tubal pregnancy
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Endometriosis
  • Use of intrauterine devices (IUDs)
  • Smoking
  • Infertility
  • Assisted reproductive technologies (ART)


Normally, a fertilized egg travels through the fallopian tube towards the uterus, where it implants in the uterine lining. In a tubal pregnancy, the egg implants within the fallopian tube itself. The fallopian tube is not designed to support a growing embryo, and as the pregnancy progresses, it can rupture, causing internal bleeding and potentially life-threatening complications.

Clinical Presentation

The symptoms of a tubal pregnancy can vary depending on the stage of the pregnancy. Early symptoms may include:

  • Abdominal pain, especially on one side
  • Irregular vaginal bleeding
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Breast tenderness
  • Fatigue

As the pregnancy progresses, symptoms may become more severe and include:

  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Heavy vaginal bleeding
  • Dizziness or fainting
  • Shoulder pain (Kehr’s sign)


Diagnosis of a tubal pregnancy is based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination, and imaging studies.

  • Transvaginal ultrasound: This is the primary imaging modality used to diagnose a tubal pregnancy. It can visualize the location of the gestational sac and assess for any abnormalities in the fallopian tubes.
  • Serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG): This hormone is produced by the placenta during pregnancy. In a tubal pregnancy, β-hCG levels may be lower than expected for the gestational age.
  • Culdocentesis: This procedure involves inserting a needle into the cul-de-sac (the space behind the uterus) to check for the presence of blood, which may indicate a ruptured tubal pregnancy.


Treatment for a tubal pregnancy depends on the severity of the condition and the patient’s overall health.

  • Medical management: This involves administering methotrexate, a medication that stops the growth of the embryo. It is typically used for early, unruptured tubal pregnancies.
  • Surgical management: This involves laparoscopic or open surgery to remove the ectopic pregnancy. Surgery is necessary if the pregnancy has ruptured or if medical management is not effective.


Tubal pregnancies can lead to serious complications, including:

  • Ruptured fallopian tube: This is the most common and life-threatening complication. It can cause severe internal bleeding and shock.
  • Hemorrhage: Heavy vaginal bleeding can occur, leading to anemia and hypovolemic shock.
  • Infection: A ruptured tubal pregnancy can lead to pelvic infection, sepsis, and infertility.
  • Ectopic recurrence: Women who have had a tubal pregnancy are at increased risk of having another one in the future.


The prognosis for a tubal pregnancy depends on the severity of the condition and the timeliness of treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes.

  • Medical management: Success rates for medical management of early, unruptured tubal pregnancies are high, with a low risk of complications.
  • Surgical management: Surgery is generally successful in removing the ectopic pregnancy and preserving fertility. However, the risk of complications, such as damage to the fallopian tube, is higher with surgery.


There is no sure way to prevent a tubal pregnancy. However, certain measures can reduce the risk, including:

  • Using effective contraception
  • Treating pelvic inflammatory disease promptly
  • Avoiding smoking
  • Seeking medical attention if you have any symptoms of a tubal pregnancy


Tubal pregnancy is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Understanding the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options is crucial for improving outcomes and preventing life-threatening complications. By raising awareness and promoting preventive measures, we can reduce the incidence and impact of this condition on women’s health.

Tinggalkan Balasan

Alamat email Anda tidak akan dipublikasikan. Ruas yang wajib ditandai *